Reference: Galper, A. & Brutlag, D. L. Computational Simulations of Biological Systems. Knowledge Systems Laboratory, May, 1993.
Abstract: This final chapter describes early projects to simulate biological systems using data and knowledge available from genomic analyses and from other sources. We discuss the need for simulations that span multiple levels of biological abstraction, from the molecule to the organism to the ecosystem, and we describe methods that permit the modeling of biological entities at each level. We also review recent research results in biological simulation. We conclude with a discussion of the state of the field.