Reference: Barsalou, T.; Sujansky, W.; & Wiederhold, G. Expert Data Systems in Biomedicine: The PENGUIN Project. 1990.
Abstract: Future decision-support systems in biomedicine will undoubtedly require integration of a wide variety of data and knowledge sources through the combined use of database and artificial-intelligence techniques. As a result, merging the two domains into expert database systems (EDSs) is a rapidly- expanding research area. Expert database systems can be seen as mediators-- "software modules that exploit encoded knowledge ab out some sets or subsets of data to create information."