Reference: Heckerman, D. & Horvitz, E. J. Problem Formulation as the Reduction of a Decision Problem. Association for Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, Cambridge, MA, 1990.
Abstract: In this paper, we extend the QMR-DT probabilistic model for the domain of internal medicine to include decisions about treatments. In addition, we describe how we can use the comprehensive decision model to construct a simpler decision model for a specific patient. In so doing, we transform the task of problem formulation to that of narrowing of a larger problem.